Answers to practise test and exam questions
Transport in Animals
- Multiple choice:
1 B 2A 3D 4D 5E (some carbon dioxide is transported in the blood as carbonate
ions and bicarbonate ions) 6C 7 B 8B 9 no correct answer 10B 11C
12 B 13C 14A 15Q (lactic acid is produced during viogorous exercise as the oxygen is used up)
16 D 17D 18A 19 D (hepatic = liver) 20E 21B 22B
Label Heart
1. superior vena cava
2. inferior vena cava
3. right ventricle
4 right ventricle wall
5. aorta
6 pulmonary artery
7. pulmonary vein
8 bicuspid valve
9 left ventricle
10 left ventricle wall

Label resoiratory syatem
1 clavicle (bone)
2 right lung, superior lobe
3. thoracic cavity// may see heart here
4. right lung, inferior lobe
5. pleural space (surrounded by pleural membranes)
6. diaphragm
7. bronchii
8. bronchus
9. trachea

Lung tissue
Label - see test
9/10 - respiratory membrane consists of
  • alveoli epithelium
  • fused basement membrane
  • capillary endothelium

Data-based question: concentration gradients - note-the graph bars are in order of the key
1. fresh air inhaled contains low levels of carbon dioxide, but alveoli air contains higher levels of carbon dioxide (expired)
thus concentration (partial pressure = pp) of oxygen will be lower in the alveoli than in fresh air.
2. a) 105 pp oxygen in alveoli vs. 40 pp of oxygen in pulmonary arterioles - pp is higher in the alveoli than the pulmonary arterioles
b) higher pp of oxygen in the alveoli will cause the oxygen to flow down the concentration gradient into the capillaries, returning
oxygenated blood to the heart
c) (i) CO2 inhaled pp = 25
exhaled pp = 27
(ii) CO2 diffuses from the tissue cells into the blood. The blood carries the CO2 to the heart and back to the lungs in the
pulmonary arteries, where it diffuses down the concentration gradient into the alveoli and is exhaled
d) Nitrogen

Data based research question
1. a) (+2)
  • mean permeability for G1 (halotane) chnages little from 1.23 to 1.3 (+/- 0.1) %, but the mean permeability for G2 (isoflurane) increases from 0.75 to 1.00 (+/- . 1)% ;
  • deviation for permaeabilty of G! chnages little 0.7 - 0.8 %, but deviation for permeability of G2 increases 0.4 - 0.7%

    b) (+3)
  • conflicting data is shown;
  • G2 shows a difference but not G1, so cannot say inhaled anestetics cause change;
  • G3 has more difference than G1, although not significant, so inhaled anethetic is less harmful than the intravenous method of delivery;
  • not enough data to make a reliable conclusion/ patents are not all the same and the start at a different mean

    c) (+1)
  • greater risks for people with asthma/ lungs are not clear, so there would be more clearing

Gas exchange - multiple choice
1C 2A 3C 4D 5A 13B 14A 15B (overall) 16B 17C 18B (gristle = cartilidge)
25D 26A 27C (they measure chemical levels in the blood) 28B 29B 30A