Greenhouse Effect Topic 5.2 Tahiti , artic melting etc link below http://www.nytimes.com/packages/html/science/20071024_DOTEARTH_FEATURE/index.html#__



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1 Draw and label the CARBON CYCLE [5.2.1], including photosynthesis, cell respiration, fossilization and combustion



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Outline equations for photosynthesis, cell respiration, fermentation and combustion

Photosynthesis and chloroplasts [3.8]


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STEPS and PROCESS in PHOTOSYNTHESIS

1. Photosynthesis involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy.


2. Light from the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths, from 400nm to 750 nm (blue/violet to red).



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3. Chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment. It is embedded in the membrane structures of the thylakoid membranes of organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are found in plant cells, especially in the leaves. Chlorophyll reflects the wavelength that we see as green.

Below is a diagram of a section of a chloroplast thylakoid membrane showing the phospholipid bilayer and the embedded chlorophyll molecules. Photosystem II provides the energy for ATP and uses the electrons from photolysis of the water.

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You don't have to know this, but it may help you to visualise the process!

4. Red and blue wavelengths of light are absorbed by the chlorophyll. These wavelengths of light excite the electrons in chlorophyll and the jump to higher energy levels

This energy is used in PII to produce ATP. It is used IN PI to produce hydrogen (NADPH)

Green wavelengths of light, however, are not absorbed. They are reflected from the chlorophyll, which is why we see the leaf as green.


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5. The light energy is used in the light dependent stage of photosynthesis to produce ATP and to split the water (photolysis) Photolysis is the source for more electrons, for hydrogen and of moleculer oxygen


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6. Now a light independent stage occurs. In this stage the ATP and the Hydrogen (from the NADPH) fix the incoming carbon dioxide to triose, which is used to make other organic molecules, such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and nucleotides..


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Cell Respiration and Mitochondria [3.7]




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CELLULAR RESPIRATION


Glucose + oxygen -------------- carbon dioxide and water, plus energy


COMBUSTION


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.2 see below


Atmospheric gases and Greenhouse effect external image causes02.jpg


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Explain the relationship between rises in concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and the enhaced greenhouse effect







Albedo is the percentage of the Sun’s energy that is reflected back by a surface. The type of surface that sunlight first encounters is the most important factor that affects the warming or cooling of the planet. Light colored surfaces like ice have a high albedo, while dark colored surfaces tend to have a lower albedo. What would happen if the ice melted? Would Earth’s albedo be higher or lower? Would this cause Earth to become cooler or warmer?





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Reading graphs http://www.climatechoices.org.uk/docs/food_miles.xls

Food miles (or food kilometres) describe the distance that food is transported as it travels from producer to consumer.
In the UK, our food travels an amazing 30 billion kilometres each year. This includes imports by boat and air and transport by lorries and cars

Food transport is responsible for the UK adding nearly 19 million tonnes of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere each year. Over 2 million tonnes of this is produced simply by cars travelling to and from shops.



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Note:

One issue when calculating these figures is whether the carbon dioxide resulting from transport during import/export is attributed to the importing or exporting country. The graph shown here includes transport within the UK, but not overseas transport during import/export


The graph below shows greenhouse gas emmisions in Australia, 2005

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  • Australia’s net greenhouse gas emissions across all sectors totalled 559.1 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2-e) in 2005 under the accounting provisions applying to Australia’s 108% emissions target.
  • Emissions were 102.2% of 1990 levels in 2005.
  • Based on International Energy Agency and Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change estimates, Australia’s share of world emissions was 1½ per cent in 2005.


Causes of Climate Change

The graph covers the period from 1850 to 2005, and shows how global temperature change and levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide follow a similar pattern.
The carbon dioxide concentration starts at 285 parts per million (ppm), and rises steadily to 315 ppm in about 1955. Following this, the concentration increases at a higher rate, reaching about 380 ppm by 2005.
Over this same period the average global temperature increases, rising about 0.8 degrees celcius above the 1850 level by 2005. The change in temperature shows some rises and falls over this period, but the general trend is an increase

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Local and global weather has always fluctuated and always will, so global warming cannot be expected to be a smooth process. But what can be seen above is that half of all man-made CO2 has been put into the air since 1975, and that matches the one-degree F global temperature increase since 1975 rather well.
Caution: The match of the CO2 and temperature graph above is somewhat deceptive. Since one is temperature and one is CO2 they cannot be graphed on the same axis, so the two axes have been adjusted to align the two. However this process does not change the fact that temperature rose faster from 1975 to now than from 1880 to 1975, and so did CO2. It also cannot change the fact the temperature has been highest recently and so has CO2.

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5.3.2

Historical Records from Mauna Loa Analyse this graph and correlate to the hand out article Mauna Loa Carbon Dioxide Record

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.4 Outline the precautionary principle

The precautionary principle holds that, if the effects of a human-induced change would be very large, perhaps catastrophic, those responsible for the change must prove that it would not do harm before proceeding.

The reverse of the precautionary principle is that those who are concerned about the change would have to prove that it will do harm in order to prevent such changes ahead



Braying in the Wind
Braying in the Wind

This cartoon reminds me of the Precautionary Principle as advocated by some Environmentalists. It is a strong version of the principle that basically says, some endeavor/advancement should not be undertaken/used until it is proven to be safe.The problem is that most scientific advances entail some level of risk. Think of antibiotics. If we subscribe to a strong version of the Precautionary Principle the world should never have introduced antibiotics into use as it has led to an unforeseen event: bacteria that are becoming resistant to said antibiotics. Despite all the good antibiotics have done a strong version of the Precautionary Principle would have us with holding them from usage. How about aspirin as another example. When I was younger there was a huge scare about aspirin taken by children and Reye’s Syndrome. There are other possible side effects of aspirin as well. Would we have aspirin if we followed the strong Precautionary Principle?

.5 Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for strong action in reponse to the threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effects

  • Set up arguments for and
  • against the precautionary principle
  • Argue as a lawyer for the oil companies
  • for the environment

.6 Outline Global Temperatures and the artic ecosystems


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REVIEW

http://ghs.gresham.k12.or.us/science/ps/sci/ibbio/ecology/notes/cycles/greenhouse.htm